The most advanced in the world: China has developed high-speed rail permanent magnet traction technology!
Over 11 years, a total of 10 million trials, accumulated 150G data, costing 100 million yuan, China CRRC Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "Zhuzhou Institute") conquered the third generation of rail transit traction technology, namely Yong Magnetic synchronous motor traction system (hereinafter referred to as "permanent magnet traction system"), mastering completely independent intellectual property rights, has become a strategic weapon for China's high-speed rail to win the market.
On May 16, 2015, the permanent magnet synchronous motor used in Changsha Metro Line 1 was successfully delivered. This is the first time in China that a permanent magnet synchronous motor is loaded into an entire train of metro vehicles.
Ding Rongjun, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and general manager of Zhuzhou, revealed that Zhuzhou has developed a 690kW permanent magnet traction system that can be used for high-speed trains with a speed of 500 kilometers per hour. This indicates that China has become one of the few countries in the world to master high-speed rail permanent magnet traction system technology after Germany, Japan and France.
"China's permanent magnet traction system with completely independent intellectual property rights has already begun the pace of industrialization, and the "permanent magnet traction era" of China's rail transit has finally arrived." Ding Rongjun said.
From "Metro" to "High-speed rail": "Climb the Hengshan and go to Mount Everest"
The traction drive system is called â€œthe heart of the trainâ€ in the industry. Its performance determines the power quality, energy consumption and control characteristics of the train to a certain extent, and also affects the economy, comfort and reliability of the train. The key to the upgrade.
The first generation of the world rail transit vehicle traction system is the DC motor traction system, and the second generation is the AC asynchronous motor traction system that started in the 1970s, which is the current mainstream technology.
Feng Jianghua, deputy general manager of Zhuzhou Institute, said, "For the traction technology of rail transit, the permanent magnet traction system is a revolution. Whoever has a permanent magnet traction system will have the right to speak of high-speed rail."
The permanent magnet traction system is the power system of the train. It consists of two parts: the converter and the motor. The converter is equivalent to the heart of the train. The motor is like the muscle of the train. The motor is mainly responsible for transmitting power and completing the conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy. Drive the train to run smoothly.
At present, international equipment manufacturers such as Siemens and Bombardier regard permanent magnet traction systems as their research and development direction. In this emerging field, China has not lost its starting point.
In 2003, the description of the permanent magnet traction system was first introduced into Feng Jianghua's ear. At the time, the technology was still in the theoretical research stage. However, Feng Jianghua noticed that the permanent magnet traction system will replace the AC asynchronous motor traction system and must be developed rapidly. At that time, Zhuzhou took the lead in setting up the first domestic R&D team of permanent magnet traction systems, starting from zero.
Xu Junfeng, deputy director of the Zhuzhou Institute of Fundamental and Platform R&D Center, said that in the research and development phase of the AC asynchronous traction system, China has been behind by foreign countries for 20 years; in the more advanced field of permanent magnet synchronization, "we are like cars without lights. The black light sizzling on the mountain road, the direction is slightly uncertain, the consequences are not just the deviation."
"Motor temperature control is the biggest bottleneck in the project." Xu Junfeng introduced that in order to avoid water, dust, iron filings and other corrosion of the internal permanent magnets of the motor, the motor uses a fully enclosed structure, but because the motor power is too high, the heat is too high, permanent magnet material Under the conditions of high temperature, vibration and reverse strong magnetic field, serious risks of irreversible demagnetization may occur. "If the train loses magnetism at high speeds, the consequences are unimaginable."
Feng Jianghua recalled, "There is no information that can be borrowed, and there is no relevant equipment for R&D testing." Zhuzhou can only "cross the river by feeling the stones." Many data still depend on the primitive and clumsy methods. "For example, if the motor heating test is done for five or six hours, the motor temperature control data will be recorded by the whole process, so that it will accumulate slowly." Feng Jianghua said.
Eight years after the establishment of the R&D team, at the end of 2011, Zhuzhou's permanent magnet traction system was successfully loaded on Shenyang Metro Line 2, achieving the first application in the domestic rail transit field, ending the history of the Chinese railway without permanent magnet traction system. Zhuzhou has also become the only enterprise in China that has mastered the complete set of technologies for independent permanent magnet traction systems. As of the end of May 2015, Shenyang Metro Line 2 has operated 70,000 kilometers without fault passengers.
"This time, we grabbed the top spot." Feng Jianghua told reporters that in 2011, Zhuzhou was assigned to participate in the "863 key project" of the "Key Projects for Major Key Technologies and Equipment Development of High-speed Railways", and to undertake the use of high-speed EMUs. Research and development of magnetic traction systems.
From "small power" to "high power", from "use of subway" to "use of high-speed rail", Zhuzhou is facing new difficulties.
Li Yifeng, chief design expert of Zhuzhou, told China Economic Weekly that the permanent magnet synchronous motor power used in Shenyang Metro is 190 kW, and the motor power for high speed EMUs of speeds up to 690 kW is always 690 kW, and it is always in high-speed operation. The stability and reliability of the system have presented great challenges. "The challenge to motor design is like climbing Hengshan and climbing Mount Everest."
Despite this, Zhuzhou has completed its tasks ahead of schedule. In December 2013, Zhuzhou successfully developed a motor that can be used for high-speed trains with a speed of 500 kilometers per hour. In October 2014, it successfully checked the load at Qingdao Sifang Co., Ltd.
"If it is successful, China's high-speed rail will soon be able to fully use the permanent magnet traction system, which is not only more energy-efficient, but also more stable and safer," Li Yifeng said.
"Energy-saving artifact": increase the power of high-speed rail motor by 60%
Ding Rongjun told China Economic Weekly that in 2014, Zhuzhou's traction system accounted for 57% of the urban rail train market. In the future, the permanent magnet traction system will be replaced by the permanent magnet traction system.
Liu Kean, deputy general manager and chief engineer of Times Electric Company, a subsidiary of Zhuzhou, said: "Energy efficiency is the most prominent advantage of permanent magnet traction systems."
The data shows that the 690kW permanent magnet synchronous motor developed by Zhuzhou is 60% higher than the current mainstream asynchronous motor, and the motor loss is reduced by 70%.
According to the actual operation data of Shenyang Metro Line 2, Liu Kean calculated an account: a subway can save energy by 4 million yuan per year. "This is profit, which unit will not want to use it?"
An industry analysis report by Liu Kean shows that by 2020, about 100 urban rail transit lines will be built nationwide. If 60% of the new line adopts the permanent magnet traction system, the expected output value will reach 10 billion yuan, and the annual energy consumption of the new line will be saved by 240 million yuan.
Permanent magnet systems also show a strong alternative advantage in the field of central air conditioning. The central air conditioner based on the permanent magnet variable frequency drive system can achieve energy saving of 40%. A 240kW central air conditioner can save at least 115,200 kWh of electricity a year if it is operated for 4 months per year. According to the calculation of 40,000 central air conditioners nationwide, it can save 4.6 billion kWh of electricity and 460,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions in one year.
Since the start of research and development in 2009, Zhuzhou has successfully developed the world's first central commercial air-conditioning permanent magnet high-speed direct drive system, becoming the only supplier of central air-conditioning permanent magnet drive system at home and abroad. As of the end of April 2015, Zhuzhou's permanent magnet system has been applied in more than 400 sets of central air conditioners. At the China Refrigeration Exhibition in April this year, Gree Electric introduced the central air conditioner with permanent magnet synchronous variable frequency heat pump centrifuge as its high-end product to the market.
The high efficiency and energy saving of the permanent magnet traction system makes Zhuzhou's electric vehicles, wind power generation, 100% low-floor modern trams and other fields also occupy the high point of market competition.
Feng Jianghua said that the research and development and industrial application of permanent magnet traction systems are still in their infancy. "In the future, Zhuzhou will be vertically deepening and refining technology research and development, and on the other hand, expanding the application of permanent magnet traction technology in the horizontal direction. The field, achieving a comprehensive layout and continuous lead."
Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Liu Youmei
Permanent magnet synchronous traction system is a model for China's high-speed rail technology upgrade
After the development of the "DC drive traction system" to the "AC drive traction system", the electric traction system technology of the world rail transit vehicle is currently developing from "induction asynchronous drive" to "permanent magnet synchronous drive". Due to its high efficiency and high power density, the permanent magnet synchronous traction system represents the current technology development trend of promoting energy conservation, emission reduction and green environmental protection. It has become a hotspot for the research of major developed countries, and it is impossible to spend money. The core technology.
China CRRC Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Research Institute successfully developed a high-speed train permanent magnet synchronous traction system, making China one of the few countries in the world to master high-speed rail permanent magnet traction system technology. The rated efficiency of the permanent magnet synchronous traction system is over 98%, which reduces the motor loss to one-third of the original, which significantly reduces the traction energy consumption of high-speed trains. Under the background of China's increasingly tense energy and the urgent need for â€œgreen transportationâ€, the permanent magnet synchronous traction system has become a model for the upgrading of China's high-speed railway technology.
Feng Jianghua, deputy general manager of Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd.
In order to catch up with the technological level of developed countries at an early date, we actively raised our targets during the development.
Technological innovation is the pillar of survival and the driving force for sustainable development. In 2003, we started the basic research of permanent magnet synchronous traction system. At that time, permanent magnet technology was still in its infancy in foreign countries, and the technology was completely confidential, and the technology was strictly blocked. We can only start from scratch, cross the river by feeling the stones, carry out a lot of theoretical analysis, simulation research and three-dimensional virtual design, and experience more than one million ground tests, accumulating hundreds of G hard disk data, successfully developed in 2011. China's first rail transit permanent magnet synchronous traction system, and successfully carried out the loading test on the Shenyang Metro Line 2 train, which is the first application of permanent magnet system in the domestic rail transit field.
In the same year of the Shenyang test, we received the task of developing a 600kW permanent magnet synchronous traction system for high-speed EMUs in the national â€œ863 Programâ€. In order to catch up with the technical level of developed countries at an early date, after receiving the task, we have internally raised the target to 690kW. Three years of persistence and dedication, and finally the joy of success.
The performance of the traction system determines the technical level of the train. The high-speed EMU 690kW permanent magnet synchronous traction system developed by us has enabled China's high-speed railway to have the most advanced traction technology in the world, which has effectively improved the technical level of China's high-speed railway, and once again showed the world that China's high-speed railway is fully independent. Technical ability.
More critically, the permanent magnet drive technology not only triggered a technological revolution in the field of rail transit, but also the core technology in the fields of new energy vehicles, ultra-high-speed permanent magnet drive centrifugal commercial air conditioners, wind power generation, etc., and is the cornerstone of our high-end equipment technology advancement. .
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